Definitions

Lipscomb University students, faculty and staff are responsible for conducting themselves with high integrity, both inside and outside of the academic setting. Having an awareness of what constitutes “academic fraud” is helpful to everyone.  Just in case there is any question about how we define violations of academic integrity, here is a list of the key “definitions.”

Unauthorized collaboration
is the act of working with others without the specific permission of the instructor on assignments. Students may not collaborate on coursework that will be graded unless they have faculty authorization. This rule applies to in-class or take-home tests, papers, labs, or homework assignments. That being stated, there may be instances where collaboration is permitted by the instructor to promote learning goals. Check with the instructor for specific guidance, but in the absence of any, collaboration is not authorized.
Cheating
is using, attempting to use, or providing unauthorized materials, information, study aids, or the ideas or work of another in any academic exercise. We learn this in kindergarten; it hasn’t changed since!
Fabrication
is the unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise. Fabrication or alteration of data tends to occur to deliberately mislead. For example, changing data to get better experiment results is academic fraud. Professors in lab classes have strict guidelines for the completion of labs and assignments. When in doubt about what might be considered academic fraud, consult the professor.
Multiple submission
is the use of work previously submitted at this or any other institution to fulfill academic requirements in another class. For example, using a paper from a high school English class for a university assignment is academic fraud. Slightly altered work that has been resubmitted is also considered to be fraudulent. With prior permission, some professors may allow students to complete one assignment for two classes. In this case, prior permission from both instructors is necessary.
False citation
is falsely citing a source or attributing work to a source from which the referenced material was not obtained. A simple example of this would be footnoting a paragraph and citing a work that was never utilized.
Plagiarism
is representing the words or ideas of another as one’s own in any academic exercise, i.e., using someone else’s ideas or work without proper or complete acknowledgement. Plagiarism encompasses many things and is by far the most common example of academic fraud. For example, copying a passage straight from a book into a paper without quoting or explicitly citing the source is plagiarism. In addition, completely reworking someone else’s work or ideas and using it as one’s own is plagiarism. It is important that students properly acknowledge all ideas, work, and even distinctive wording that are not their own. However, certain information in any discipline is considered “common knowledge” and may be used without acknowledgment. What is considered to be common knowledge varies among fields. When in doubt, consult a professor. Students unsure of how to properly cite a source are encouraged to consult a professor or a relevant manual of style.
Internet resources
are quickly becoming popular materials used in academic research. Many websites provide reliable information; however, others may not provide well-documented research. If you rely on Internet resources for your research, be sure to verify the correctness of the information and to use proper citation in your work.
Facilitating academic dishonesty
is helping or attempting to help another to violate any provision of the Lipscomb University Commitment of Integrity. See Expectations.